Our first assignment was to read excerpts from the philosophy of Plato and Aristotle. They offered differing views on whether music and the arts should be required along with the core academic subjects as a necessity in education. It was a very interesting reading, and I find myself agreeing with Plato's (or Socrates/Glacon's) musings.
Expressed as a discussion between Socrates and Glaucon, Plato emphasizes the need for an equal amount of music (which encompassed other arts such as dancing) and gymnastics to create a balanced, educated person. By learning both, students become "more civilized, balanced, and better adjusted in themselves, for rhythm and harmonious adjustment are essential to the whole of human life".
Plato says that a man should be equally balanced in both disciplines, for if he is solely based in the arts, he may become soft and gentle, whereas a man devoted to gymnastics and physical strength will be hardened and savage. Some more great quotes from the Republic;
"Surely the fairest is the most lovable. Of course. The true musician, then, would love by preference persons of this sort, but if there is disharmony he would not love this".
"And so your youths, said I, employing that simple music which we said engendered sobriety will, it is clear, guard themselves against falling into the need of the justice of the courtroom".
"Then he who best blends gymnastics with music and applies them most suitably to the soul is the man whom we should most rightly pronounce to be the most perfect and harmonious musician."
Much more specific in detail, Aristotle set to outline the 4 most important fields of a public education. He believed that the State should provide a balanced education and that the "training in things which are of common interest should be the same for all". Reading and Writing, Gymnastics, Drawing, and Music (which again includes dance, etc.) were the customary branches of education. In my opinion, it seemed that he was throwing in Music because it was already a custom/tradition, not because he believed it was useful.
Aristotle raised the idea that Music should be done for leisure, for the relaxing after work was completed. Reading/writing, gymnastics, and drawing were far more useful and profitable outlets, and were necessary to society. His justification was not because music gives health or strength, but because a balanced education in the arts is liberal and noble. Music contributes to the enjoyment of leisure and mental cultivation, and the best man knows how to "leisure well". Here's some more quotes from Politica, Book VIII;
"Learning is no amusement, but is accompanied with pain."
"Why should they learn themselves, and not... enjoy the pleasure and instruction which is derived from hearing others (for surely persons who have made music the business and profession of their lives will be better performers than those who practice only long enough to learn)?"
"The vulgarity of the spectator tends to lower the character of the music and therefore the performers."
Does Teaching imply Learning? To answer this question, we broke into groups to develop a working definition of Teaching. Here are some of those definitions:
- Teaching is transferring knowledge
-Teach, don't preach
-Teaching can be measurable and assessed
-Teaching is sharing and channeling knowledge between 2 or more individuals
-Teaching leads to change towards intended goals
What are characteristics of a good teacher?
- Genuine caring about students and their improvement
-transfers knowledge efficiently
- active engagment and differentiation
-enthusiastic about content
-challenges students to critically and actively participate
-creates organized, systematic, structured environment for learning
-has the ability to adapt and think on their feet
Learning does not always occur when teaching. Good teachers are able to hold themselves accountable, and find out why they are not getting through to particular students. If students don't learn, the teacher must reevaluate their delivery strategy, determine the students learning style, and make every effort to help.